Influence of Mechanical Shelling on the Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Quality of Souna Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and its Derivatived

Influence of Mechanical Shelling on the Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Quality of Souna Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and its Derivatived

Loading document ...
Page
of
Loading page ...

Author(s)

Author(s): Adjaratou Basse, Donatien Kabore, Mamadou Salif Sow, Seynabou Momar Fall, Eliasse Dieme, Fatou Diallo, Magatte Fall, Mamoudou Hama Dicko

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2573 10 22 8-12 Volume 11 - Apr 2022

Abstract

Souna millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is used in Senegal for human consumption after primary processing to obtain flour and semolina. Mechanical shelling and dry milling of local cereals results in processed products with a long shelf life. The objective of this work is to study the influence of mechanical shelling on the microbiological and physico-chemical qualities of Souna millet and primary products, flour and semolina. The results of the physico-chemical analyses revealed a reduction in the content of the various parameters studied. However, the greatest losses were obtained on flour fatty acidity with 50% and on millet ash with 55% while the reduction in protein content only varied from 12% to 15% for millet and flour respectively with 14% for semolina. The percentages of reduction of calcium (14.6%), zinc (23.3%) and potassium (18.4%) contents obtained after shelling, were more important on millet, while the highest losses of iron and magnesium composition were noted respectively in flour with 18.1% and in semolina with 15.3%. At the same time, the results of microbiological analyses showed a decrease in the level of contamination of husked millet and derived products by aerobic mesophilic flora at 30°C, by yeasts and molds and by thermotolerant coliforms. An absence of Salmonella was also noted in all samples as well as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were not enumerated.

Keywords

Souna Millet, Mechanical Shelling, Flour, Semolina, Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality

References

  1. ADJILE A. N. et al., 2015. Characterization of the gambari-lifin process (degermed husked maize flour) and influence of maize variety on physico-chemical and rheological quality. Nature & Technologie. B- Agronomic and Biological Sciences, n° 12/ January 2015, 9 pages.
  2. NASD (National Agency for Statistics and Demography), 2018. Economic and social situation of Senegal, 2017-2018: agriculture. Monthly bulletin of economic statistics, p.10.
  3. AOAC International, 2005. The Ashes. Official Methods of Analysis 18th Edition 2005, revision 2007: 923.03 (32.1.05).
  4. AOAC International, 2005. Determination of minerals. Official Methods of Analysis 18th Edition 2005, révision 2007: 968.08 (4.8.02).
  5. AOAC International, 2005. Protein content. Official Methods of Analysis 18th Edition 2005, révision 2007: 2001.11.
  6. BIROLLO G., REINHEIMER J.A., VINDEROLA C.G., 2001. Enterococci vs. nonlactic acid microflora as hygiene indicators for sweetened yoghurt. Food Microbiology,18 : 597-604.
  7. BLEIN R. and al., 2012. "Cereals at the heart of a nourishing West Africa". Summary of a workshop co-organized by ROPPA and SOS Hunger in November 2010 in Ouagadougou on the cereal sectors and issues in West Africa; SOS Hunger-Roppa-Issala-Lares; 80 pages.
  8. BROUTIN C. and al., 2000. Innovation for the promotion of local cereals. Reconquering urban markets. GRET Editions, Enda-Graf, 1999 211-213, 147 pages.
  9. BROUTIN C. and al., 2003. Transforming local cereals for new urban markets. « LE POINT SUR » collection, 300 pages.
  10. BROUTIN C., 2005. The quality approach in the cereal processing sector in Africa. Communication, Cotonou, September 2005, 14p.
  11. CXS 170, 1989. Codex Standard for millet flour Chandelle. Standard revised in 1995, amended in 2019.
  12. FAO/OMS, 2005. The informal food distribution sector (food sold on public roads) : importance and challenges. Africa Regional Conference on Food Safety (October3-6, 2005 Harare Zimbabwe) Rome, extract from the conference.
  13. HADIMANI and al., 2001. Nature of carbohydrates and proteins in three pearl millet varieties varying in processing characristics and kernel texture. Journal of Cereal Science, (33), 17-2.
  14. HOUSSOU P. A. F. and al., 2016b. Production of good quality gambari-lifin (refined maize flour) by improving the traditional production process in Benin. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 17: 100-111.
  15. ISO 4833-1, 2013. Food chain microbiology: Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms - part 1: Colony count at 30°C by the deep inoculation technique.
  16. ISO 6887-1, 2017. Microbiology of the food chain. Preparation of samples, stock suspension and decimal dilutions for microbiological examination. Part 1 : General rules for the preparation of the stock suspension and decimal dilutions.
  17. ISO 7305, 2019. Cereal milling products - Determination of fatty acidity.
  18. NF EN ISO 6579-1, 2017. Food microbiology - Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp.
  19. NF EN ISO 6888-1, 1999. Food microbiology - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) - Part 1: technique using Baird-Parker agar medium.
  20. NF EN ISO 7218, 2007. Food microbiology: General requirements and recommendations.
  21. NF EN ISO 7932, 2005. Microbiology of foods: Horizontal method for the enumeration of Bacillus cereus, colony counting method at 30°C.
  22. NF V08-059, 2002. Food microbiology: Routine methods - Enumeration of yeasts and molds by counting colonies at 25°C.
  23. NF V08-060, 2009. Food microbiology: Enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms by counting colonies obtained at 44°C.
  24. NF ISO 16649-1, 2001. Food Microbiology: Horizontal method for the enumeration of B-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli - part 2: colony counting technique at 44 °C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl B-D-glucuronate.
  25. N’GORAN-AW E. B. Z., 2018. Microbiological quality of maize flours marketed in Abidjan city. Rev. Mar. Sci. Agron. Vet. (2018) 6 (4), pp. 476-482.
  26. SANOGO M., 1994. Technologies and equipment for the manufacture of infant flours. In: Treche S., De Benoist B., Benbouzid D., Delpeuche F., eds. The supplement diet of young children. Proceedings of the WHO-Orstom workshop, Alexandria, november 1994. Ortsom Editions, France, pp. 237-247.
  27. SIDDIQUI A. A., CHOWDHURY M. N. A., 2013. Physico-chemical & microbiological quality assessment quality of different popular brands of wheat flour available in Bangladesh. Journal of SUB, (4), pp. 57-65.
  28. SONGRE-OUATTARA L. T. et al., 2015. Grain quality and suitability for processing: case of the varieties of Sorghum bicolor, Pennisetum glaucum and Zea mays varieties used in West Africa. International journal of Biological and Chemical Science, 9 (6), pp. 2819-2832

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue April 2022

Volume 11, April 2022


Table of Contents



World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:


Submit your Paper