The study investigated the potential production of fried chips from bitter yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) as well as the evaluation of quality characteristics of the chips. Yellow and white bitter yam and sweet potato (control) obtained from a local yam farmer were respectively processed into fried chips while the chips were subsequently subjected to analysis. The results showed that the proximate composition of fried bitter yam ranged as follows: moisture content (5.32 – 6.04), fat (28.93 – 29.41), ash (1.66 – 1.82), fibre (4.45 – 7.38), protein (2.44 – 3.32) and carbohydrate (58.71 – 61.85 g/100g). The proximate composition of fried sweet potato chips was moisture content (4.64), fat (28.51), ash (2.91), fibre (6.01), protein (0.55) and carbohydrate (62.04 g/100g). Frying operation was found to cause decrease in the proximate values except fat value due to oil absorption. The browning indices of the fried chips from yellow and white bitter yam and sweet potato were 66.2, 50.8 and 52.8, respectively while the values for oiliness indices were 29.1, 21.6 and 36.1 cm2, respectively. The rate of in vitro starch digestibility of the fried chips revealed the following order: yellow bitter yam > white bitter yam > sweet potato. The hydrolysis indices were 72.5, 63.1 and 58.4% while their corresponding estimated glycemic indices (eGI) were 79.5, 74.4 and 71.8% respectively, all indicating high glycemic index values. The sensory quality rating of the fried products revealed that chips from sweet potato was rated the highest in terms of aroma, taste, colour and overall acceptability but not significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of yellow bitter yam. Therefore, the use of yellow bitter yam for commercial production of fried chips, as a way of utilization diversification and value addition, is recommended.
Bitter Yam, Fried Chips, Browning Index, Glycemic Index, Digestibility
- Agbor-Egbe, T. and Treche, S. (1983). Variability in the the chemical composition of yams grown in cameroon. In: Tropical Root Crops: Production and Uses in Africa (Terry, E.R., Doku, E.V., Arene, O.B. and Mahungu, N.M., eds). Proceedings of the Second Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops- Africa Branch, Held in Douala, Cameroon, 14-19, August, 1983; pp. 153-156.
- Akissoe, N.H., Hounhouigan, J.D., Mestres, C. and Nago, M. (2003). How blanching and drying affect the colour and functional characteristics of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata) flours. Food Chemistry, 82, 257–264.
- AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edn. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
- Babajide, J. M., F. O. Henshaw, and O. B. Oyewole (2008). Effect of yam variety on the pasting properties and sensory attributes of traditional dry-yam and its products. Journal of Food Quality, 31, 295-305.
- Bahado-Singh, P.S., Riley, C.K., Wheatley, A.O. and Lowe, H.I.C. (2011). Relationship between processing method and the glycemic indices of ten sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas ) cultivars commonly consumed in Jamaica. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Article ID 584832, doi:10.1155/2011/584832
- Baimey, H., Coyne, D. and Labuschagne, N. (2006). Effect of fertilizer application on yam nematode (Scutellonema bradys) multiplication and consequent damage to yam (Dioscorea spp.) under field and storage conditions in Benin. International Journal of Pest Management, 52, 63–70.
- BeMiller, J.N. (2010). Carbohydrate analysis. In: Food analysis, 4th edition (Nielsen SS ed.), pp. 147-177, Springer, New York, USA.
- Bouchon, P. and Aguilera, J. M. (2001). Microstructural analysis of frying of potatoes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 36, 669–676.
- Cardello, A.V. (1995). Food quality: relativity, context and consumer expectations. Food Quality and Preference, 6, 163–170.
- Chung, H., Lim, H.S. and Lim, S. (2006). Effect of partial gelatinization and retrogradation on the enzymatic digestion of waxy rice starch. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 353–359.
- Da-Clarke, U. (2016). Evaluation of index of oiliness, in vitro starch digestibility and consumers’ acceptability of fried bitter yam chips. A B.Tech. Project in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
- FAOSTAT. (2014). Production statistics on crops. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
- Funes, J. and Karel, M. (1981). Free radical polymerization and lipid binding of lysozyme reacted with peroxidizing linoleic acid. Lipids, 16, 347-350.
- Faulks, R.M. and Bailey, A.L. (1990). Digestion of cooked starches from different food sources by porcine α-amylase. Food Chemistry, 36, 191-203.
- Goñi, I., Garcia-Alonso, A. and Saura-Calixto, F. (1997). A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutrition Research, 17(3), 427-437.
- Granfeldt, Y., Bjorck, I., Drews, A. and Tovar, J. (1992). An in vitro procedure based on chewing to predict metabolic responses to starch in cereal and legume products. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 649–660.
- Guoado, I., Demasse, M.A., Etame, L.G., Meyimgo, O., Ruphine, S., Ejoh, A.R. and Fokou, E. (2011). Impact of three processing methods (steaming, roasting on charcoal and frying) on the β- carotene and vitamin C contents of plantain and sweet potato. American Journal of Food Technology, 6(11), 994 – 1001.
- IFIS. (2009). Dictionary of Food Science and Technology, 2nd Edition. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 390 pp.
- 19. IFT. (1981). Sensory evaluation guide for testing food and beverage products. Food Technology, 35, 50-59.
- Ikanone, C.E.O. and Oyekan, P.O. (2014). Effect of boiling and frying on the total carbohydrate, vitamin c and mineral contents of Irish (Solanun tuberosum) and sweet (Ipomea batatas) potato tubers. Nigerian Food Journal, 32(2), 33-39.
- Ikoko, J. and V. Kuri, V. (2007). Osmotic pre-treatment effect on fat intake reduction and eating quality of deep-fried plantain. Food Chemistry, 102, 523–531.
- 22. Ile, E.I., Craufurd, P.Q., Battey, N.H. and Asiedu, R. (2006). Phases of dormancy in yam tubers (Dioscorea rotundata). Annals of Botany, 97, 497–504.
- Kemp, S.E., Hollowood, T. and Hort, J. (2009). Sensory evaluation: a practical handbook. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, U.K., pp. 1-3.
- Kordylas, J.M. (1990). Processing and preservation of tropical and subtropical foods. Macmillan Publishers Ltd., London, U.K., pp. 49–136.
- Krokida, M. K., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z. B. and Marinos-Kouris, D. (2001). Effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on quality of French fries. Journal of Food Engineering, 49, 339–345.
- Lawless, H.T. and Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory evaluation of food: principles and practices. 2nd edition, pp. 325-347, Springer: NY, USA.
- Ludwig, D. S., Majzoub, J.A., Al-Zahrani, A., Dallal, G. E., Blanco, I. and Roberts, S. B. (1999). High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics, 103(3), e26, doi: 10.1542/peds.103.3.e26.
- 28. Marsha ll, M.R. (2010). Ash analysis. In: Food Analysis, 4th edition (Nielsen, S.S. ed.), pp. 105-115, Springer, New York, USA.
- Maskan, M. (2001). Kinetics of colour change of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 48, 169-175.
- Maziya-Dixon, B., Montes-Lopez, A., Alamu, O., Popoola, I. and Asiedu, R. (2014). Enhancing the role of yam in food diversification and income generation. IITA Publication (IITA Research programme on Roots, Tubers and Bananas).
- McGuire, R.G. (1992). Reporting of objective color measurement. HortScience, 27, 1254 –1255.
- Miller, J. B., Pang, E. and Bramall, L. (1992). Rice: A high or low glycemic index food? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(6), 1034–1036.
- Moskowitz, H. R. (1995). Food Quality: conceptual and sensory aspects. Food Quality and Preference, 6, 157–162.
- Odenigbo, A., Rahimi, J., Ngadi, M., Amer, S. and Mustafa, A. (2012). Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2(7), 280-289.
- Onwueme, I. C. and Charles, W.B. (1994). Tropical root and tuber crops: production, perspectives and future prospects. Paper 126-Plant production and protection, pp. 51-114, FAO Publication.
- Osunde, Z.D. (2008). Minimizing postharvest losses in yam (Dioscorea spp.). In: Using food science and technology to improve nutrition and promote national development (edited by Robertson, G.L. and Lupien, J.R., eds), pp.1-5, International Union of Food Science and Technology.
- Pedreschi, F., Moyano, P., Kaack, K. and Granby, K. (2005). Colour changes and acrylamide formation in fried potatoes slices. Food Research International, 38, 1-9.
- Phillips, G.O. and Cui, S.W. (2011). An introduction: evolution and finalisation of the regulatory definition of dietary fibre. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 139-143.
- Purseglove, J.W. (1991). Dioscoreacea in tropical crops. monocotyledon. pp. 97-100, New York, USA John Willey & Sons Publishing Corp. WA.
- Riley, C.K., Bahado-Singh, P.S., Wheatley, A.O., Ahmad, M. H. and Asemota, H. N. (2008). Relationship between the physicochemical properties of starches and the glycemic indices of some Jamaican yams (Dioscorea spp.). Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(11), 1372–1376.
- Rojas-Gonzalez, J. A., Avallone, S., Brat, P., Trystram, G., and Bohuon, P. (2006). Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 57(1-2), 123–136.
- Sánchez-Muniz, F. J. (2012). Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 27(1), 31-45.
- Simsek, S., Ovando-Martínez, M., Whitney, K. and Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2012). Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch. Food Chemistry, 134, 1796–1803.
- Sulaeman, A., Keeler, L., Giraud, D.W., Taylor, S.L., Wehling, R.L. and Driskell, J.A. (2001). Carotenoid content and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of carrot chips deep-fried in different oils at several temperatures. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 66(9), 1257- 1264.
- Tufvesson, F., Skrabanja, V., Bjorck, I., Elmstah, H.L. and Eliasson, A.C. (2001). Digestibility of starch systems containing amylose-glycerol monopalmitin complexes. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 34, 131–139.
- Tumuluru, J.S., Sokhansanj, S., Bandyopadhyay, S., and Bawa, A.S. (2013). Changes in moisture, protein and fat content of fish and rice flour coextrudates during single screw extrusion cooking. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(2), 403–415.
- Van-Baak, M. A. and Astrup, A. (2009). Consumption of sugars and body weight. Obesity Reviews, 10(1), 9–23.
- Van-der-Merwe, B., Erasmus, C. Taylor, J.R.N. (2001). African maize porridge: a food with slow in vitro starch digestibility. Food Chemistry, 72, 347-353.
- Venn, B.J. and Green, T.J. (2007). Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet–disease relationships. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(Suppl 1), S122–S131.
- Washaya, S. Mupangwa, J. F. and Muranda, E. (2016). Nutritional value and utilization of yams (Dioscorea steriscus) by residents of Bindura town, high density suburbs, Zimbabwe. Advances in Agriculture, 1, 1-7.
- Weller, J.N. and Stanton, K.J. (2002). The establishment and use of a QC analytical/descriptive/consumer measurement model for the routine evaluation of products at manufacturing facilities. Food Quality and Preference, 35, 375–383.
- Wolever, T.M.S. (2000). Dietary carbohydrates and insulin action in humans. British Journal of Nutrition, 83(1), S97–S102.
- Zhang, X., Tao, N., Wang, X., Chenb, F. and Wang, M. (2015). The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation. Food and Function, 6, 345-355.
- Zia-Ul-Haq, M., Iqba, S., Ahmad, S., Imran, M., Niaz, A. and Bhanger, M.I. (2007). Nutritional and compositional study of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars grown in Punjab, Pakistan. Food Chemistry, 105, 1357–1363.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.