The Use of Shea Butter in the Production of Fried Plantain (Musa AAB) Chips and Its Effect on the Product’s Quality Attributes

The Use of Shea Butter in the Production of Fried Plantain (Musa AAB) Chips and Its Effect on the Product’s Quality Attributes

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Mathew K. Bolade, Mohammed A. Usman, Paul O. Ogungbemi

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1705 88 384 68-76 Volume 7 - Jun 2018


This study investigated the possible use of shea butter for fried plantain chips production as well as comparative assessment of their quality characteristics. Mature green plantain was peeled and chipped followed by deep-frying using three different vegetable oils (shea butter, soybean oil and palm oil) individually. The respective fried plantain chips were then evaluated for their quality attributes. The fat content of fried plantain chips from shea butter (FPC-Shea) was 19.79% while that from FPC-Soy (plantain chips from soybean oil) and FPC-Palm (plantain chips from palm oil) were 18.47 and 20.04%, respectively. The protein, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents of FPC-Shea were 5.22, 2.62, 3.54 and 69.33%, respectively while those of FPC-Soy and FPC-Palm ranged from 3.84 – 4.77, 2.36 – 2.54, 3.41 – 3.64 and 69.01 – 71.92%, respectively. The browning index (BI), oiliness index and in vitro starch digestibility of FPC-Shea were 103.71, 28.14 cm2 and 42.38 mg/g, respectively while those of FPC-Soy and FPC-Palm ranged from 108.34 – 111.94, 24.45 – 36.31 cm2, and 34.54 – 37.27 mg/g, respectively. The organoleptic assessment revealed that FPC-Shea was rated the highest in terms of colour and crispness while FPC-Soy was rated the highest in terms of taste, aroma, hand greasiness and overall acceptability. The FPC-Palm was rated the lowest in terms of all sensory parameters. The overall acceptability of FPC-Shea was lower than that of FPC-Soy but still processed high potentiality. The storability study revealed that the fried plantain chips from all vegetable oil sources could not last beyond seven days due to the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) exceeding a threshold level of 1.1 mg MDA/kg. The type of packaging material used (transparent polyethylene material) might have played a critical role in this relatively short storage life of the fried plantain chips.


Plantain Chips, Shea Butter, Soybean Oil, Palm Oil, Frying


  1. Akhter, S., Halim, A., Sohel, S.I., Sarker, S.K., Chowdhury, M.H.S. and Sonet, S.S. (2008). A review of the use of non-timber forest products in beauty care in Bangladesh. Journal of Forest Research, 19(1), 72-78.
  2. Alander, J. (2004). Shea butter: A multifunctional ingredient for food and cosmetic. Lipid Technology, 16, 202–205.
  3. Alireza, S., Tan, C., Hamed, M. and Cheman, Y. (2010). Effect of frying process on fatty acid composition and iodine value of selected vegetable oils and their blends. International Food Research Journal, 17(2), 295-302.
  4. AOAC (2012). Official Methods of Analysis, 19th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Washington DC.
  5. BeMiller, J.N. (2010). Carbohydrate analysis. In: Food Analysis (Nielsen, S.S., ed.). Pp. 147-177. Aspen Publishers: New York, USA.
  6. Bolade, M.K. (2018). Physical and organoleptic characteristics of non-sour ‘kokoro’ (a
  7. Nigerian maize-based snack) as influenced by flour particle size differential. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 87, 287-292.
  8. Bolade, M.K., Usman, M.A. and Da-Clarke, U. (2017). Proximate composition, colour characteristics, index of oiliness and estimated glycemic index of deep-fried bitter yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) chips. International Journal of Sciences, 6(11), 39-47.
  9. Bordin, K., Kunitake, M.T., Aracava, K.K. and Trindade, C.S.F. (2013). Changes in food caused by deep fat frying – A review. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 63(1), 5-13.
  10. Bouchon, P. and Aguilera, J. M. (2001). Microstructural analysis of frying of potatoes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 36, 669–676.
  11. Brennan, M.A., Derbyshire, E., Tiwari, B.K. and Brennan, C.S. (2013). Ready-to-eat snack products: the role of extrusion technology in developing consumer acceptable and nutritious snacks. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 893–902.
  12. Bup, D.N., Kapseu, C., Matos, L., Mabiala, B. and Mouloungui, Z. (2011). Influence of physical pretreatments of sheanuts (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) on butter quality. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113, 1152–1160.
  13. Choe, E. and Min, D. B. (2007). Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Science, 72, 77-86.
  14. Chung, J., Lee, J. and Choe, E. (2004). Oxidative stability of soybean and sesame oil mixture during frying of flour dough. Journal of Food Science, 69, 574–578.
  15. Chung, H., Lim, H.S. and Lim, S. (2006). Effect of partial gelatinization and retrogradation on the enzymatic digestion of waxy rice starch. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 353–359.
  16. Dobarganes, M.C. and Márquez-Ruíz, G. (1998). Regulation of used frying fats and validity of quick tests for discarding the fats. Grasas y Aceites, 49(3-4), 331-335.
  17. Fillion, L. and Henry, C.J.K. (1998). Nutrient losses and gains during frying: A review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 49, 157-168.
  18. Gheisari, H.R. (2011). Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Veterinary World, 4(4), 153-157.
  19. Gomes, H. A., Silva, E. N., Nascimento, M. R. L. and Fukuma, H. T. (2003). Evaluation of the 2-thiobarbituric acid method for the measurement of lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned gamma irradiated chicken meat. Food Chemistry, 80, 433−437.
  20. Goñi, I., Garcia-Alonso, A. and Saura-Calixto, F. (1997). A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutrition Research, 17(3), 427-437.
  21. Guillén-Sans, R. and Guzmán-Chozas, M. (1998). The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction in foods: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38(4), 315-350.
  22. Honfo, F.G., Akissoe, N., Linnemann, A.R., Soumanou, M. and Van-Boekel, M.A.J.S. (2014). Nutritional composition of shea products and chemical properties of shea butter: A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(5), 673-686.
  23. Houhoula, D.P., Oreopoulou, V. and Tzia, C. (2003). The effect of process time and temperature on the accumulation of polar compounds in cottonseed oil during deep-fat frying. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 314–319.
  24. IFIS. (2009). Dictionary of Food Science and Technology, 2nd Edition. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 390.
  25. IFT. (1981). Sensory evaluation guide for testing food and beverage products. Food Technology, 35, 50-59.
  26. Ikoko, J. and V. Kuri, V. (2007). Osmotic pre-treatment effect on fat intake reduction and eating quality of deep-fried plantain. Food Chemistry, 102, 523–531.
  27. Kim, I-H., Kim, C-J. and Kim, D-H. (1999). Physicochemical properties of methyl linoleate oxidized at various temperatures. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 31, 600–605.
  28. Krokida, M. K., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z. B. and Marinos-Kouris, D. (2001). Effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on quality of French fries. Journal of Food Engineering, 49, 339–345.
  29. Lawless, H.T. and Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory evaluation of food: principles and practices. 2nd edition, pp. 325-347, Springer: NY, USA.
  30. Makinson, J.H., Greenfield, M.L., Wong, M.L. and Wills, R.B.H. (1987). Fat uptake during deep-fat frying of coated and uncoated foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 1, 93-101.
  31. Maranz, S., Kpikpi, W., Weisman, Z., Sauveur, A.D. and Chapagain, B. (2004). Nutritional values and indigenous preferences for shea fruits (Vitellaria paradoxa CF Gaertn.) in African Agroforestry parklands. Journal of Economic Botany, 58, 588-600.
  32. Maranz, S. and Wiesman, Z. (2004). Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter. Journal of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 2934–2937.
  33. Marshall, M.R. (2010), Ash analysis. In: In: Food Analysis (Nielsen, S.S., ed.). Pp. 105-115. Aspen Publishers: New York, USA.
  34. Maskan, M. (2001). Kinetics of colour change of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 48, 169-175.
  35. Mba, O.I., Dumont, M. and Ngadi, M. (2015). Influence of palm oil, canola oil and blends on characteristics of fried plantain crisps. British Food Journal, 117(6), 1793 – 1807.
  36. McGuire, R.G. (1992). Reporting of objective color measurement. HortScience, 27, 1254 –1255.
  37. Mellema, M. (2003). Mechanism and reduction of fat uptake in deep-fat fried foods.
  38. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 14, 364–373.
  39. Moyano, P.C. and Pedreschi, F. (2006). Kinetics of oil uptake during frying of potato slices: effect of pre-treatments. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 39(3), 285-291.
  40. Okullo, J.B.L., Hall, J.B. and Obua, J. (2004). Leafing, flowering and fruiting of Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. nilotica in Savanna parklands in Uganda. Agroforestry Systems, 60, 77-91.
  41. Pokorny, J. (1989). Flavor chemistry of deep fat frying in oil. In: Flavor chemistry of lipid foods (Min, D.B. and Smouse, T.H., eds.). Champaign, Ill. Pp. 113–115., American Oil Chemists Society.
  42. Qian, M.C. and Pike, O.A. (2010). Fat characterization. In: Food analysis laboratory manual, 2nd edition, pp. 103-112, Springer: NY, USA.
  43. Saura-Calixto, F., Canellas, J. and Soler, L. (1983). Dietary fibre components of the nitrogen free extract of almond kernels. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 36, 1419-1422.
  44. Stevenson, S.G., Vaisey-Genser, M., Eskin, N.A.M. (1984). Quality control in the use of deep frying oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 61, 1102–1108.
  45. Sulaeman, A., Keeler, L., Giraud, D.W., Taylor, S.L., Wehling, R.L. and Driskell, J.A. (2001). Carotenoid content and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of carrot chips deep-fried in different oils at several temperatures. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 66(9), 1257- 1264.
  46. Witte, V.C., Krause, G.F. and Bailey, M.E. (1970). A new extraction method for determining 2- thiobarbituric acid values for pork and beef during storage. Journal of Food Science, 35, 585- 592.
  47. Zia-Ul-Haq, M., Iqba, S., Ahmad, S., Imran, M., Niaz, A. and Bhanger, M.I. (2007). Nutritional and compositional study of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars grown in Punjab, Pakistan. Food Chemistry, 105, 1357–1363.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue April 2021

Volume 10, April 2021

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper