A complementary food formulation from local products and exclusive use of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) juice for the cooking : Nutritional and health interest

A complementary food formulation from local products and exclusive use of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) juice for the cooking : Nutritional and health interest

Loading document ...
Page
of
Loading page ...

Author(s)

Author(s): Mamadou SADJI, Ndèye Fatou NDIAYE, Cheikna ZONGO, Yves TRAORE, Mohamadou Diop SALL, Alfred TRAORE

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.996 459 944 31-42 Volume 5 - Apr 2016

Abstract

Malnutrition and diarrheal foodborne diseases that affect children at weaning age are public health problems in developing countries. The objective of this study was to formulate a nutritious complementary food (CF) from available local products and investigate the potential of watermelon juice as alternative to contaminated cooking water as a means of preventing diarrhea and associated malnutrition. Three CF were cooked as follows: the first (CF1) “control” with water, the second (CF2) with “Kaolack” watermelon juice and the third (CF3) with “Koloss” watermelon juice. Carbohydrate content was increased (81.20 ± 0.81g/100g and 75.81 ±1.54 g /100g dry weight), respectively in CF2 and CF3 samples compared with CF1 (46.23 ± 1.30 g /100g dw). The fat level of CF1 (13.44 ± 0.94 g/100g dw) was higher than CF2 (9.53 ± 0.27g/100g dw) and CF3 (7.54 ± 0.36 g/100g dw). The protein levels of CF1, CF2 and CF3 were respectively 34.51 ± 1.30 g/100g dw, 30.08 ±0.54 g/100g dw, 26.83 ± 0.20 g/100g dw. L-citrulline contents were increased in CF2 (209.54 ± 0.21 mg/100g dw) and CF3 (212.43 ± 1.14 mg/100g dw) when compared to CF1 (39.35± 0.15 mg/100g dw) sample. All protein contents were sufficient and above the recommended value of 1.7 g/100 kcal (WHO/FAO/UNU (2002). Energy content met expectations, with CF2 (530.89 ± 7.83 Kacl/100g) and CF3 (478.42 ± 10.2 Kacl/100g) energy contents were higher than CF1 (443.92 ± 18.86 Kacl/100g) and could help reach the WHO energy recommended daily allowance for weaning food. CF2 and CF3 contained more calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron than CF1. Calcium, magnesium and iron contents were far above recommended levels. Also, this study showed that it is possible to have concomitantly adequate energy density and a thin complementary food viscosity when it is cooked exclusively with watermelon juice.

Keywords

Malnutrition, Diarrhea, Children, Complementary food, Water contamination, Watermelon juice, Cooking

References

  1. Addis Getachew, Singh Vasudeva, Pratape Vishwas, Srivastava Alok, Gowda Lalitha, Asha Madhavan and Bhattacharya Sila. Development and functional properties of low-cost complementary. African Journal of Food Science. Vol. 7(9) pp. 274-284, September 2013.
  2. Agustina Rina, Sari1 Tirta P, Satroamidjojo Soemilah, Bovee-Oudenhoven Ingeborg MJ, Feskens Edith JM and Kok Frans J. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:977.
  3. Aidoo Kofi Edirisah, Mohamed Shadlia Matug Candlish, Alan Alexander, Tester Richard Frank, Elgerbi Ali Mohamed. Occurrence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Some Commercial Baby Foods in North Africa. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2011, 2, 751-758.
  4. Aiyer Prasanna V. Amylases and their applications. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (13), pp. 1525-1529, December 2005.
  5. Amagloh Francis Kweku, Mutukumira Anthony N., Brough Louise, Weber Janet L., Hardacre Allan and Coad Jane. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods. Food & Nutrition Research 2013, 57: 18717.
  6. Amankwah E.A, Barimah J, Nuamah A.K.M., Oldham J.H. and Nnaji C.O. Formulation of Weaning Food from Fermented Maize, Rice, Soybean and Fishmeal. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (11): 1747-1752, 2009.
  7. Bijttebier, A, Goesaert H,. Delcour J A. Amylase action pattern on starch polymers. Biologia Section, Cellular and Molecular Biology. 63/6: 989-999, 2008.
  8. Chaudhry Razia and Humayun Naheed. Weaning practices and their determinants among mothers of infants. Biomedica Vol. 23 (Jul. - Dec. 2007).
  9. Cisse M, Sakho M, Dornier M, Diop C M, Reynes M, et Sock O.. Characterization of the baobab tree fruit and study of its processing into nectar. Fruits, EDP Sciences, 2009, 64 (1), pp.19-34.
  10. Commission du Codex Alimentarium FAO/OMS : Programme mixte FAO/OMS sur les normes alimentaires Comité du Codex sur la Nutrition et les aliments diététiques ou de régime 30e session Le Cap, Afrique du Sud 3 - 7 novembre 2008.
  11. De Betue C. T, Joosten Koen FM, Deutz Nicolaas EP, Vreugdenhil Anita CE, and van Waardenburg Dick A. Arginine appearance and nitric oxide synthesis in critically ill infants can be increased with a protein-energy–enriched enteral formula. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 98:907–16.
  12. Diana, J. E., Pui, C. F. and Son, R. Enumeration of Salmonella spp., Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium in fruit juices. International Food Research Journal 19(1): 51-56 (2012).
  13. El-Badry, N, El-Waseif, M. A., Badr, S.A. and Ali, H. E. Effect of Addition Watermelon Rind Powder on the Rheological, Physiochemical and Sensory Quality Attributes of Pan Bread. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(4): 1051-1046, 2014.
  14. Elenga Michel, Massamba Joachim, Kobawila Simon C., Makosso Vheiye G. et Silou Thomas. Evaluation et amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des pâtes et des bouillies de maïs fermenté au Congo. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 3(6): 1274-1285, 2009.
  15. Elenga Michel, Massamba Joachim, Silou Thomas. Effet de l’incorporation de malt sur la fluidité et la densité énergétique des bouillies de maïs-arachide destinées aux nourrissons et aux jeunes enfants. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012.
  16. Erhirhie EO. and Ekene NE.. Medicinal Values on Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon): Pharmacological Review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 4 (4) Oct – Dec 2013.
  17. FAO/WHO. Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids From the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, November 10-14, 2008, WHO HQ, Geneva.
  18. FAO/WHO. Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation Bangkok, Thailand.2001.
  19. Food Safety Authority of Irland. Microbial Factsheet Series Salmonella species. September 2011.
  20. Gardner Julie Meeks, Walker Susan P, Gavin Karlene A and Ashworth Ann. Complementary foods in Jamaica: viscosity, energy density and feeding practices. Public Health Nutrition: 5(2), 295–302.
  21. Haque M.R., Hosain M. M., Khatun H. Alam, R. and Gani M.O.. Evaluation of nutritional composition and sensory attributes of weaning food prepared from sweet potato and soybean. Bangladesh research publications journal, Volume: 8, Issue: 2, Page: 127-133, March - April, 2013.
  22. Heaney Robert P.. Dairy and Bone Health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 28, No. 1, 82S–90S (2009).
  23. Houssou P. and Amonsou E. Development and test of improved parboiling equipment for paddy rice in Bénin. Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique du Bénin Numéro 49. 2005.
  24. Houndji B V S,,. Bodjrenou S F, Londji Serge B. Marius., Ouetchehou Romaric, Acakpo Alfred, Amouzou Kou’Santa Sabiba E. et Hounmenou. Amélioration de l’état nutritionnel des enfants âgés de 6 à 30 mois à Lisn sèzoun (Centre-Bénin) par la poudre de feuilles de Moringa oleifera (Lam.) . Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 7(1): 225-235, February 2013.
  25. Ikeh, El Okwudili PE, Agina ES, Odumodu CU. Micro-organisms Associated with locally available infant weaning foods in Jos and Environs, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 2001; 28 (1): 7-13.
  26. Ismail Mady A., Taligoola Hannington K. and Nakamya Rebbecca. Mycobiota associated with baby food products imported into Uganda with special reference to aflatoxigenic aspergilli and aflatoxins. Czech Mycol. 60(1): 75–89, 2008.
  27. Iroegbu C.U, Ene-Obong Henrietta N., Uwaegbute Ada C. and Amazigo Uche V.. Bacteriological Quality of Weaning Food and Drinking Water Given to Children of Market Women in Nigeria: Implications for Control of Diarrhoea. J Health Popul Nutr 2000 Dec; 18(3):157-162.
  28. Kalantari H, Kalantari GH, Nazari Khorasgani Z. Evaluation of aflatoxins contamination in baby food supplements (mamana & ghoncheh) Jundishapur. Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products 2011; 6(1): 42-50.
  29. Kavitha S. and Parimalavalli R.. Development and Evaluation of Extruded Weaning Foods. European Academic Research Vol. II, Issue 4/ July 2014.
  30. Kikafunda JK, Walker AF and Tumwine JK . Weaning foods and practices in central uganda: a cross-sectional study. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, Vol. 3, No. 2, November, 2003.
  31. Kolawole, A.N .and Kolawole A.O. Diastatic enzymes malting process optimisation of African finger millet for biotechnological uses. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. Vol. 9(6), pp. 81-88, July, 2015.
  32. Kumar Shiv Role of enzymes in fruit juice processing and its quality enhancement Pelagia Research Library Advances in Applied Science Research, 2015, 6(6):114-124.
  33. Lee Kyung-Jin, Kim Kyung-Soo, Kim Ha-Na, Seo Jin-A and Song Sang-Wook.Association between dietary calcium and phosphorus intakes, dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio and bone mass in the Korean population. Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:114.
  34. Lobstein T., Baur L. and Uauy R.. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. obesity reviews (2004) 5 (Suppl. 1), 4–85.
  35. Malumba Paul, Janas Sébastien, Deroanne Claude, Masimango Thaddée, Béra François. Structure de l’amidon de maïs et principaux phénomènes impliqués dans sa modification thermique. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 2011 15(2), 315-326.
  36. Matug S.M., Aidoo K.E. and Elgerbi A.M.. Microbiological examination of infant food and feed formula.Emer life Sci Res (2015) 1(1): 46-51.
  37. Moinard C, Nicolis I, Neveux N, Darquy S, Bénazeth S, Cynober L. Dose-ranging effects of citrulline administration on plasma amino acids and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects: The Citrudose pharmacokinetic study. Br. J. Nutr. 99: 855-862; 2008.
  38. Monilola Wakil, Sherifah and Bukola Oriola Olasunkanmi. Quality assessment of starter- produced weaning food subjected to different temperatures and pH. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 6(5), pp. 147-154, 15 March, 2012.
  39. Monte Cristina M. G., Ashworth Ann, Nations Marilyn K., Lima A. A., Barreto A. and Huttly Sharon R. A.. Designing educational messages to improve weaning food hygiene practices of families living in poverty. Soc. Sri. Med. Vol. 44, No. 10, pp. 1453-1464, 1997.
  40. Monte Cristina M. G., Giugliani Elsa R. J.. Recommendations for the complementary feeding of the breastfed child. Jornal de Pediatria - Vol. 80, No.5(suppl), 2004.
  41. Motarjemi Y., Kaferstein F., Moy G., Quevedo & F.. Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor for diarrhoea and associated malnutrition. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 71 (1): 79-92.1993.
  42. Mouquet C., Bruyeron O. and Trèche S., “Caractéristiques d’une Bonne Farine Infantile,” Bulletin du Réseau, Technologie et partenariat en Agroalimentaire (TPA), No. 15, 1998, pp. 8-11.
  43. Mouquet C, Bruyeron O, Trèche S. Couvrir les besoins nutritionnels des enfants : Caractéristiques d’une bonne farine infantile. Bulletin du réseau TPA, mai 1998.
  44. Okokon F. B., Ekpenyong E., Nwaukwa1C., Akpan N., Abam F. I.. Impact force of melon seeds during shelling. AgriIntEng : CIGR Journal, vol 12 N 1 March, 2010.
  45. Omemu, A.M. and Omeike, S.O. Microbiological hazard and critical control points identification during household preparation of cooked ogi used as weaning food. International Food Research Journal 17: 257-266 (2010).
  46. Onweluzo J.C. and Nwabugwu C.C.. Development and Evaluation of Weaning Foods from Pigeon Pea and Millet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (6): 725-730, 2009.
  47. Oyarekua, M. A. Evaluation of the nutritional and microbiological status of co-fermented cereals/cowpea ‘OGI’. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2011, 2(1): 61-73.
  48. Palmieri James R., Warehime Jenna, Childers Kristin Anne Geers and Meacham Susan. Relationships between Weaning Food Preparation and the Transmission of Parasitic Infections among Children in Honduras, El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. Austin Journal of Microbiology. 2015.
  49. Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed Child, 2001.
  50. Perkins-Veazie Penelope, Collins Julie K, Pair Sam D and Roberts Warren. Lycopene content differs among red-fleshed watermelon cultivars. Journal of the Sciende of Food and Agriculture : 81 :983-987 (online : 2001).
  51. Potgieter Natasha, Obi Chikwelu Larry, Bessong Pascal Obong, Igumbor Eunice Obiajulu, Samie Amidou, and Nengobela Rose. Bacterial Contamination of Vhuswa__A Local Weaning Food and Stored Drinking-water in Impoverished Households in the Venda Region of South Africa. J Health Popul Nutr Jun 2005.
  52. Rahimi Ebrahim, Abdos Fahimeh, Momtaz Hassan, Baghbadorani Zienab Torki and Jalali Mohammad. Bacillus cereus in Infant Foods: Prevalence Study and Distribution of Enterotoxigenic Virulence Factors in Isfahan Province, Iran. The ScientificWorld Journal Volume 2013.
  53. Rimando AM, Perkins-Veazie PM : Determination of L-citrulline in watermelon rind.J Chromatogr A. 2005 Jun 17;1078(1-2):196-200.
  54. Sadji Mamadou, Perkins-Veazie Penelope M., Ndiaye Ndèye Fatou, Traore Djibril, Ma Guoying, Zongo Cheikna, Traore Yves, Sall Mohamadou Diop and Traore Alfred. Enhanced L-citrulline in parboiled paddy rice with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice for preventing Sarcopenia: A preliminary study. African Journal of Food Science. Vol. 9 (10), pp. 508-513, October, 2015.
  55. Sanoussi A. F, Bokossa-yaou Dansi A, Egounlety Dansi M, Sanni L.O and Sanni. A. Formulation and biochemical characterization of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) based infant flours fortified with soybeanand sorghum flours. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 2(7): 22-34 Volume 2 Number 7 (2013) pp. 22-34. 2013.
  56. Satter Mohammed A., Jabin Syeda Absha, Abedin Nusrat, Arzu Taslima, Mitra Kanika, Abdullah A. M. and Paul D. K.. Development of nutritionally enriched instant weaning food and its safety aspects. African Journal of Food Science. Vol. 7(8), pp. 238-245, August 2013.
  57. Sajilata G., Singhal Rekha S., and Kulkarni Pushpa R.. Weaning foods: A review of the Indian experience. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 2, 2002.
  58. Schwedhelm E, Maas R, Freese R, Jung D, Lukacs Z, Jambrecina A, Spickler W, Schulze F, Böger RH. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 65: 51-59. 2008.
  59. Sharma A. Assessment of low cost weaning food on children health - intervention at farm level by uttar dinajpur kvk. Ind. J. Sci. Res. and Tech. 2013 1(1):18-24.
  60. Sheth Mini and Dwivedi Reeta.Complementary Foods Associated Diarrhea. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 73—January, 2006.
  61. Skrivanova E., Marounek M., Benda V., Brezina P.. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Clostridium perfringens to organic acids and monolaurin. Veterinarni Medicina, 51, 2006 (3): 81–88.
  62. Srivastava Shipra, Singh Neerubala, Shikha and Shamim Mohammad Zaki. Nutritional composition of weaning food using malted cereal and pulses flour for infants. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 3 (1): 171-185 (2015).
  63. Takeda Eiji, Yamamoto Hironori, Yamanaka-Okumura Hisami, and Taketani Yutaka. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health. American Society for Nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 5: 92–97, 2014.
  64. Tako Masakuni, Tamaki Yukihiro, Teruya Takeshi, Takeda Yasuhito. The Principles of Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2014, 5, 280-291.
  65. Theobald H. E.. Dietary calcium and health. British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 30, 237–277. 2005.
  66. Trèche S. Influence de la densité énergétique et de la viscosité des bouillies sur l’ingéré énergétique des nourrissons. Cahiers Sante´ 6:237–243. 1996.
  67. Wang Shujun, Li Caili, Copeland Les, Niu Qing, and Wang Shuo. Starch Retrogradation: A Comprehensive Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Scienceand Food Safety Vol.14, 2015.
  68. UNDP/WHO. Food, water and family health: A manual for community educators. 1994.
  69. USAID/ WASHplus Project. Integrating water, sanitation, and hygiene into nutrition programming. 2013.
  70. Van Waardenburg DA, Betue, CT de, Luiking YC, Engel M, Deutz NE. Plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations in critically ill children: Strong relation with inflammation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007). 86: 1438-1444.
  71. Viala Julie P. M., Méresse Stéphane, Pocachard Beérengère, Guilhon Aude-Agnès, Aussel Laurent, Barras Frédéric. Sensing and Adaptation to Low pH Mediated by Inducible Amino Acid Decarboxylases in Salmonella. PLoS ONE. July 2011, Volume 6, Issue 7.
  72. WH0. Complementary feeding, Report of the global consultation and Summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child Geneva, 10-13 December 2001.
  73. WHO/FAO.Safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula Guidelines 2007.
  74. WHO/FAO/UNU. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. WHO Technical Report Series 935, 265 p. 2002.
  75. World Health Organization, Weaning from breast milk to family food a guide for health and community workers. 1988.
  76. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition. 2004.
  77. YU Shifeng, XU Jing, ZHANG Yongchun and KOPPARAPU Narasimha Kumar. Relationship between Intrinsic Viscosity, Thermal, and Retrogradation Properties of Amylose and Amylopectin. Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 32, 2014, No. 5: 514–520.

Cite this Article:

  • BibTex
  • RIS
  • APA
  • Harvard
  • IEEE
  • MLA
  • Vancouver
  • Chicago

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue August 2019

Volume 8, August 2019


Table of Contents


Order Print Copy

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:


Submit your Paper