Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Flour preserved with Mixtures of Neem (Azadichata Indica A.Juss) and Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) Seed Oils

Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Flour preserved with Mixtures of Neem (Azadichata Indica A.Juss) and Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) Seed Oils

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): J. O. Y. Ilesanmi, D. T. Gungula

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1077 474 1021 142-151 Volume 5 - Jun 2016


Most pesticides used in cowpea have some effects on the utilization of the grains. There is a need for a functional biopesticide that will have no adverse effect on cowpea utilisation or application in food system. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties of cowpea grains preserved with mixtures of neem and moringa oils. Graded mixtures and concentrations of neem and moringa seed oils (ratio 1:2/2.5µl/g, 1:2/5.0µl/g, 1.3/2.5µl/g, and 1:3/5.0µl/g) were investigated. Cowpea grains were treated with the seed oils in ratio 1:2 and 1:3 at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 µl/g, and stored for a period of 270 days. The functional properties (bulk density, foaming property and stability, emulsification capacity, oil and water absorption capacity, viscosity and least gelation concentration) of the differently treated grains were determined every 90 days. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance using SAS version 9.2 and means that were significantly different were compared using Least Significant Difference at P<0.05. The results showed that there were no significant (P<0.05) differences between the functional properties of the cowpea flours from grains treated with ratio 1:3/2.5µl/g and 1:3/5.0µl/g but significant differences were observed in the bulk density, emulsification capacity, foaming capacity, least gelation capacity, water absorption capacity and viscosity of the flours from cowpea grains treated with ratio 1:2/5.0µl/g and the control . There were Ssignificant (P<0.05) reduction in the bulk density, emulsification capacity, foam capacity, oil absorption capacity, viscosity and water absorption capacity of the treated cowpea flour as storage progressed except for the gelatinization temperature that was the same throughout the period.. Preservation of cowpea grains with ratio 1:3/5.0µl/g neem-moringa seed oil retained best functional properties of the treated cowpea grains flour thus showing that it has potential to be applied for cowpea preservation without compromising the desired functional properties.


Cowpea, functional properties, preservation, cowpea flour, neem and moringa oils


  1. Abbey, B. W. and Ibeh, G. O. (1988). Functional properties of raw and heat processed Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L Walp) Flour J. Food Sci., 53:1775-1791.
  2. Adebowale, Y.A., Adeyemi, I.A., and Oshodi A.A. (2005). Functional and physichochemical properties of flours of six mucuna species. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4(12), pp.1461-1468.
  3. Adeyemi, I.A. and Beckley, O. (1986). Effect of period of maize fermentation and souring on chemical properties and amyl grapy ur on millet biscuit characteristics. J. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition,56:195-202.
  4. Agazounon, C.O. and Houndekon, V. (2004). Analysis of cowpea processing techniques into atta in Benin. Bulletin de la recherché Agrono mique du Benin. No. 46.
  5. Ahmed S.H., Babiker E.E., Mohammed I.A., Eltayeb M.M., Ahmed S.O. and Faridullah K. (2012). Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the functional properties of selected legume flours. AJFAND. Vol. 12 No. 6 Pp 6700 – 6713.
  6. Ajeigbe H.A., Ihedioha, D. and Chikoye, D. (2008). Variation in Physico–chemical properties of seed of selected improved varieties of cowpea as it relates to industrial utilization of the crop. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 7 (20), Pp 3642 – 3647.
  7. Aremu, M.O., Olaofe, O. and Akintayo, T.E. (2006). A comparative study on the chemical and amino acid composition of some Nigerian under-utilized legume flours. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 5(1):34-38.
  8. Cherry, P.P. and McWaters, K.H. (1981). Whippability of in protein functionality in foods. ACS symposium series 147. American Chemistry Society, Washington DC., pp.149-179.
  9. Enwere N.J. and Ngoddy P.O. (1986) Effect of heat treatment on selected functional properties of cowpea flour. Tropical Science 26, 223 – 232
  10. Enwere, N.J.; McWatters K.H. and Philips, R.D. (1998) Effects of processing on some properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed, protein, starch, and “akara”. Int. J of Food Science and Nutrition. 52:221-229.
  11. Falade, K.O. and Kolawole, T.A. (2011). Effect of irradiation dose on physical, functional and pasting properties of cowpea. Journal of Food Process Engineering. Willy Periodicals Inc. pp.6.
  12. Graham D.E. and Philips M.C. (1976). Foams. Academic Press, London. P.273
  13. Ilesanmi, J.O. (2015). Effects of Mixtures of Neem and Moringa Seed Oils on the Physicochemical, Sensory Properties of Stored Cowpea and their Effects on Mammal. Doctorate Degree Thesis. Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.
  14. Iwe, M.O. and Onalope, O.O. (2001). Effect of extruded full fat soy flour into sweet potato flour on functional properties of the mixture. J. Sustainable Agric. Environ., 3: 109-117.
  15. Kerr, W.L, Ward, C.D.W., McWatters, K.H. and Resurrection, A.V.A. (2000). Effect of milling and particle size on functionality and physicochemical properties of cowpea flour. Cereal chem. 77 (2): 213 – 219.
  16. Kinsella J.E. (1982). Relationship between structural and functional properties of food proteins. In Fox, P.F. and Condon, J.J. (Eds.). Food Proteins. Applied Science Publishers, New York. Pp 51–103.
  17. Mc Watters, K.H. Resurreccion, A.V.A. BeuChat, L.R., Phillips, R.D. (1995) Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours. Plant foods. Hum. Nutr. 47, 71-87.
  18. Mitchell, (2009). Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population. J. Am Diet Assoc, 2009, 109(5); p.909-13.
  19. Odedeji. J.O. and Oyeleke, W.A. (2011). Comparative studies on functional properties of whole and dehulled cowpea seed flour (Vigna unguiculata). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10(9): 899-902.
  20. Odoemelan, S.A. (2005) Functional Properties of raw and heat Processed jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4 (6): 366-370.
  21. Ohr, M.I. (2004) Neutracenticals and functional foods. Food technol. 58: 71- 72
  22. Ojimelukwe, P.C., Onweluzo, J.C. and Okechukwu, E. (1999). Effects of infestation on the nutrient content and physiocochemical properties of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 321-332.
  23. Okechukwu, P. E., and Rao, M. A. 1997. Calorimetric and rheological behavior of cowpea protein plus starch (cowpea and corn) gels. Food Hydrocolloids 11:339-345.
  24. Olaofe, O.; Umar. Y.O. and Adediran, G.O. (1993). The effect of nematicides on the nutritive value and functional properties of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Food Chem. 46, 337 – 341
  25. Olapade, A.A., Ugokwe, P.U., Ozumba, A.U., Solomon, H.M., Olatunji, O. and Adelaja, S.O. (2004). Physicochemical properties of premixes for preparation of Akara. Nigerian Food Journal, Vol. 22:54-59.
  26. Onwuka, G.I. (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation theory and practical. Naphtali Prints, Lagos, Nigeria. Pp.133-137.
  27. Oyeyinka, S.A, Oyeyinka, A.T, Karim, O.R, Kayode, R.M.O., Balogun, M.A. and Balogun, O.A. (2013). Quality attributes of weevils (Callosobruchus maculates) infested cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) products. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 9(3):16-22.
  28. Padmashrre, T.S, Vigayalashmi, L. and Puttaraj (1987). Effect of traditional processing on the functional properties of cowpea (Vigna catjang) flour. J. Food Sci. Technol. 24: 221-225.
  29. Perez, E. (1997). Characterization of starch isolate from plantain (Musa paradisiacal normalis) starch/starke, 49, 45-49.
  30. Sathe, S.K., Desphpande S.S., Salunkhe, D.K. (1982). Functional properties of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, L)proteins. J. Food Science, 47:503–506.
  31. Singh, S.R. and Rachie, K.O. (1995). Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 217-231

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue April 2021

Volume 10, April 2021

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper